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Conlang critic sambahsa
By Joyce Chepkemoi on May 29 in Society. Constructed languages, also known as conlang or auxiliary languages, are not developed naturally but instead as a result of the strategic scientific reorganization of sounds, grammar, and vocabulary for easier communication among people. They are second languages and does not aim to replace the first language though some have significantly influenced first languages. These languages borrow heavily from other languages, and some evolved from earlier constructed languages. There are many such languages, and more have yet to be developed. Constructed languages are still coming up and gaining momentum due to their simplified nature, unlike natural languages. The language is derived from the modern Romance dialects of French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Catalan languages. It consists of the twenty-two alphabet writing system, a complete and reduced grammar. Those who are familiar with the romance languages can easily understand it at first glance. Elefen has no gender, no plural or person suffix for verbs and no possessive or separate objective form for pronouns. Approximately 1, people use it on their Facebook profiles. Novial was created by Professor Otto Jespersen and its sentence creation, syntax, and vocabulary are almost like English, making it easier for English speakers to learn. The vocabulary features English, French, German and Scandinavian languages. Novial was specifically designed to address difficulties that were noticed in the Esperanto language. From the mids after the death of Jespersen, Novial was largely unused. It re-emerged in the s due to the internet wave that was sweeping the globe. The language is still undergoing evolution led by Novial 98, a project that seeks to revive, market, and improve Novial. Ido, an Esperanto word meaning Offspring, was created in because of apparent flows in Esperanto. Ido uses 26 letters, much like the English alphabet. Ido was specifically designed to be grammatically, lexicographically, and orthographically regular, and above all easy to learn and use. Ido introduced gender-neutral nouns and third person pronouns. It is estimated that close to five hundred thousand people speak this language. InEdward Powell Foster created Ro, a conlang that constructs words using groupings whereby, words starting with distinct alphabets signified a group. For example, all words starting with bu are geographical areas like the US is called Budval. Bofo means color, bofoc is red, and bofof is yellow. In his words, he describes Ro as a language that acts as a picture and gives a hint. The language has been described as a philosophical language, has only five vowel letters and a twenty-six alphabet letter. However, Ro has been criticized for its difficulty in differentiating between two words because mostly one consonant makes the difference in meaning. Mark Hucko constructed Slovio in to make it easy for non-Slavs to acquire the language due to its moderately simple parsing. Slovio borrows from Esperanto and Slavic languages and most words identified by their endings like verbs, adverbs, and adjectives. The nouns can be made plural indicating the subject or object or describing direction. Adjectives, adverbs, and verbs are identified by how they end. The language has a simplified spelling, articulation and a logical grammar. It is estimated that over four hundred million people comprehend Slovio and can be typed on any keyboard, including the US keyboard. As the name suggests, Interslavic language is a semi-artificial language that was constructed based on the language of the different Slavic nations to enable them to communicate with one another. Created init can be written using Latin and Cyrillic alphabets. Interslavic removes the different idiosyncrasies that make writing and communication difficult. The language was developed to unite the different Slavic people who, though from a similar lingual origin and physically separated, could no longer understand each other due to influence from other languages. This is a relatively new language, having been created in by Dr.
ConglangOlivier Simon. According to one of the rare academic studies addressing recent auxiliary languages, "Sambahsa has an extensive vocabulary and a large amount of learning and reference material". The first part of the name of the language, Sambahsa, is taken from two Malay words, sama and bahsa which mean 'same' and 'language' respectively. Sambahsa tries to preserve the original spellings of words as much as possible and this makes its orthography complex, though still kept regular. Sambahsa, though based on PIE, borrows a good proportion of its vocabulary from languages such as ArabicChineseIndonesianSwahili and Turkishwhich belong to various other language families. Sambahsa's phonology  has little to do with Proto-Indo-European phonologythough the majority of its vocabulary comes from PIE. The changes from PIE are not regular, since the creator of Sambahsa has tried to avoid homophoneswhich would have become common after the elimination of some PIE sounds like laryngeals or some aspirated consonants. However, any person proficient with Proto-Indo-European roots will easily recognize them when they appear in Sambahsa. For example, according to the rules of Sambahsa, bureau is pronounced as in Frenchand point as in English. Sambahsa has nine vowels not counting the lengthened form of these vowelstwo semi-vowels IPA : [j] and [w] and twenty consonants. Compared to other conlangsSambahsa words are short, often as short as English words, and highly consonantic. Likewise, Sambahsa's accentuation rules are complex but regular, and tend to follow what is often found in German or Italian. This predictability implies that all words with the same orthography are pronounced and stressed the same way as each other. This regularity of accentuation can be compared with English "president" and "to preside"two words that bear the stress on different syllables, though they share the same origin. In Sambahsa, declensions are only compulsory for pronouns. Thus, in all Sambahsa declensions, the neuter nominative and accusative are identical, as it was the case in PIE. This last gender, which is an innovation from PIE, is used when a noun of uncertain or unknown gender is referred to, and, in the plural, for groups containing elements of different genders. The creator of Sambahsa introduced this non-PIE element to avoid the "gender" dispute found in Esperanto. Gender is attributed in Sambahsa according to the "true nature" of the noun referred to, as English speakers do with heshe and it. Sambahsa has four grammatical cases : nominativeaccusativedative and genitive ; however, their attribution tries to be as logical as possible, and not arbitrary as in many modern Indo-European languages. The nominative is the case of the Subjectand the form under which words are given in dictionaries. Except for verbs describing a movement or a position where the required prepositions ought to be usedall transitive verbs must introduce the accusative case in the first place, before an eventual dative case. However, the dependent clause of indirect speech is considered as a direct objectleading to verbs introducing an indirect object, even if there is no visible direct object. In Sambahsa, all prepositions trigger the accusative. The genitive indicates possession, and is used after adjectives that can introduce a dependent clause. For substantives and adjectives, there are declined "free endings" i. This system is inspired from the euphonic endings found in the Standard Arabic Language. In Sambahsa, all verbs are regular, except ses to behabe to haveand woide to know, in the meaning of French savoir or German wissen. Sambahsa verbs are indicated in dictionaries not under their infinitive form, but their bare stembecause the whole conjugation can be deduced from the form of this stem. The main tenses of Sambahsa are present and pastbut many other tenses can be obtained through the use of affixes or auxiliary verbs. Sambahsa uses the following endings, which are close to those found in many Indo-European languages. Sambahsa is unusual among auxlangs because of its use of a predictable ablaut system for the past tense and passive past participles. For example, eh within a verbal stem turns to oh. Other verbs that cannot use ablaut can drop their nasal infixor use an improved version of the De Wahl's rules. Finally, the remaining verbs simply add the past tense endings, which are optional for verbs of the categories described above. Therefore, this system qualifies Sambahsa as a language belonging to the Indo-European family of languagesthough it remains a constructed language.
Conlang wikiA conlang written in the form of Super Mario Maker 2 levels. Enemy placement, music choice, course elements, etc. Athabaskan languages are known for, among other things, their complex verbal morphology, and nowhere is this more true than in verbs of motion. Languages such as Navajo have different verbs of motion for singulae vs. Not only that, but they have different inflections for going somehwere once, going somewhere and coming back, going somewhere many times, starting to go somewhere, getting somewhere, etc. Make a Cathabaskan language that has a separate aspect for absolutely desperately begging to get somewhere, and then once the opportunity is presented, staying put. A conlang that contains neither the alveolar nasal, nor the voiceless alveolar fricative, nor the voiceless labiodental fricative, nor the labiovelar approximant. A Romance language where the Latin feminine agentive ending is reanalyzed as a diminutive marker, because -trix is for kids. Archive Ask me anything Submit a post.
A priori auxlangInun amanuensis rhalt ab un kawu os Quintilian creit id wekwos tas Encyclopaedias ep un reedition ios wehrg os Plinius, buit-yod kwahn ka oin werd. Itak, tod nov latin werdo prohp in in id titule ios Margarita philosophica encyclopaediam exhibens ab Jacobus Philomusus. Id social memoria biht transmiss neti med id Mythosper id oral tradition, sontern per id scriben, samt systematisme ed aum. Also, id wehrg ed id men os Aristoteles pre JC gwehme ender un vol os panges ia weidas os eys tid, in xeimens tem divers quem PhysiqueBiologialogique, Esthetiquepolitique Sam-ye, id imposant Historia naturalis os Plinius Senior ananct un kamusdescription ios mund. Ye id XVIt secule, ia technologic mutations brighen ab id Era iom Aunstehgens bfuyi evolveihnt weida, ed it inhibeihnt cada encyclopedic gwayt. Tod regnaht, ye id XVIIIt secule, med id menos iom Lumensinauguren ab id publication ios Dictionnaire historique et critique os Bayle quod alliet hois narrative ed descriptive logos, ed ciois critic ed philosophic logos. Est uno monumental over comredagen inter ed sub Diderots direction kay panges un synthese iom gnohsas ios zaman. Lit in-kap tik de tarjmes id Cyclopaedia ios Englisch Chambers. Bet Diderot plauterih jaldi id startprojecto previdend-ye, hois, realise id synthese iom modernest gnohsas ed, ciois, vulgarise tod weida kay accessiblihes id ei mierst numer. Id redaction iom takriban 60 articlen vahsit dure unte meis quem dwogim yars ed sammel pleist megil intellectuals ios zaman Voltaire, RousseauCondillac, Marmontel, Turgot, d'Holbach, Jaucourt Nespekent ta "vexations", Diderot, qui bohr id deursia, ne tyohgv. Id deursia lakin brug staur stehmens Madame de Pompadour, Malesherbes. Id success ios wehrg buit immense in id hol exclarat Europehatta crisct ob id lyut opposition im tarafdars om aurdhen ed traditions. Med un subtile systeme referencen, id texte enderwehbht id contestation. Bilhassa, id daht un preponderant place ad historia sub ids quant formes institutions, Economiaevolution iom sciencen ed Techniquen Ids influence est sensible unte id Franceois Revolutionbesonters in id regime ios Constituante, ed oistrehcsiet tiel id XIXt secule, inspirend i partisans os liberalisme. Id attention dahn ibs kassebs ed kerdsims, describen concret-ye med Kwitersbeuwt orbat ed ia medya classes ka motor os social Progressprotiapo ei wirtensysteme ios Awios Regime. Hassa, ielg sector os gnohsa biht studyen samt critic menos, id referencensysteme permittend udgrance id alphabetic aurdhen kay panges inter ia articles brungosta sibias ed id multiplicitat im collaborators oiswekwehrt id presence vasyen nov mentrends. Ia oindem jasamts om kwiterpages kardwne eti id didactic kweitu ios deursia. Est oiscript ab circa holwakt editors ed meis quem contributors, bayna-yi Nobelprisens ed penk US presidents. Id version ios 15t edition, quod comprindt 32 jasamats ed 32 pages, buit id sensto druckt edition; est taiper tayt ab digital mathmoun photo levi. Id Britannica est id veutst encyclopedia dar ediht. Buit ye id prest ker publiet inter ed in Edinburg, Alba, in tri jasamats. Id gaiss alim kleumen quod ei hohlp ad vehrbhe eminent contributors, ed ia 9t ed 11t editions ghehlde ka models. In Martbuit mohlden od neti esient publien druckt editions kay focuse instet ep Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Id druv revolution de encyclopedias gwehmt do luce in-kap id XXIsto secule med id spand os quo biht kalt "ia nov Technologias om information ed communication ". Med id spectacular antslehnken os Internetelectronic edition tayt id papier, ed multipliet ia imkans om informationenstock, ubnuwen ed indexation. Ta nov technologias joine id encyclopedic gwayt ob anancent al leiser uno nuntro naiwo nact sum om weidas, eti interactive ed tienxia-relevant. Ia stets performant sokmotors behandeihnt it vasya publics un quasi aunlimite numer daten. Wikipedia est id largest ed popularsto general reference wehrg ep Internet, ed oino iom popularst websites. Id project est aygwn ab id 'Wikimedia Foundationun aunlautel foundation. In summ, Wikipedia comprindt meis quem 40 millions articlen in different bahsas ed, in Februarid hieb 18 milliards om pagenvids ed quasi millions em wahid visitors cada munt. Wikipedias magno kweit est od biht composen ed redagen ab iswo neuders, qui controle kathalika id hakikia iom informations dadwt in ia different articles. Oino iom recurrent critiquen kyunggiawt id mank os hierarchia tom in-ligne informations. Professors ed intellectuals hant enevidencen id danger skipen, pro almens ed studyents, ab un tem pau scientific alat kam Wikipedia, besonters ob id perneiceus neud os "copieglimes". Punor, M.
Auxiliary language examplesControlled languages are natural languages that have in some way been altered to make them simpler, easier to use, or more acceptable to those who do not speak the original language well. Most of these have been based on English. These are languages created by J. Tolkienand are present in his books or derivative works throughout diverse media. Jogos Filmes TV Wikis. Categorias :. Cancelar Salvar. Based on pitch levels sounded with their solfege syllables a "musical language". Joseph Schipfer. Jean Pirro. Johann Martin Schleyer. Easily the most popular auxiliary language ever invented, including tens of thousands of speakers and the only one to date with its own native speakers. Adolph Nicolas. Idiom Neutral. Waldemar Rosenberger. Latino sine Flexione. Giuseppe Peano. Claudius Colas. Edgar de Wahl. Otto Jespersen.
The philologist and author J. Tolkien created a number of constructed languagesincluding languages devised for fictional settings. Inventing languages, something that he called glossopoeiaparalleling his idea of mythopoeia or myth-making was a lifelong occupation for Tolkien, starting in his teens. The most developed of his glossopoeic projects was his family of Elvish languages. He first started constructing an Elvin tongue in c. He later called it Quenya c. Inhe held a lecture about his passion for constructed languages, titled A Secret Vice. Here he contrasts his project of artistic languages constructed for aesthetic pleasure with the pragmatism of international auxiliary languages. The lecture also discusses Tolkien's views on phonaestheticsciting Greek, Finnishand Welsh as examples of "languages which have a very characteristic and in their different ways beautiful word-form". Tolkien's glossopoeia has two temporal dimensions: the internal fictional timeline of events described in The Silmarillion and other writings, and the external timeline of Tolkien's own life during which he often revised and refined his languages and their fictional history. Tolkien was a professional philologist of ancient Germanic languagesspecialising in Old English. He was also interested in many languages outside his field, and developed a particular love for the Finnish language. He described the finding of a Finnish grammar book as "like discovering a complete wine-cellar filled with bottles of an amazing wine of a kind and flavour never tasted before". Glossopoeia was Tolkien's hobby for most of his life. At a little over 13, he helped construct a sound substitution cypher known as Nevbosh,  'new nonsense', which grew to include some elements of actual invented language. Notably, Tolkien claimed that this was not his first effort in invented languages. Language invention had always been tightly connected to the mythology that Tolkien developed, as he found that a language could not be complete without the history of the people who spoke it, just as these people could never be fully realistic if imagined only through English and as speaking English. Tolkien therefore took the stance of a translator and adaptor rather than that of the original author of his works. Tolkien was of the opinion that the invention of an artistic language in order to be convincing and pleasing must include not only the language's historical developmentbut also the history of its speakers, and especially the mythology associated with both the language and the speakers. It was this idea that an "Elvish language" must be associated with a complex history and mythology of the Elves that was at the core of the development of Tolkien's legendarium. Tolkien wrote in one of his letters: "what I think is a primary 'fact' about my work, that it is all of a piece, and fundamentally linguistic in inspiration. It is not a 'hobby', in the sense of something quite different from one's work, taken up as a relief-outlet. The invention of languages is the foundation. The 'stories' were made rather to provide a world for the languages than the reverse. To me a name comes first and the story follows. But, of course, such a work as The Lord of the Rings has been edited and only as much 'language' has been left in as I thought would be stomached by readers. I now find that many would have liked more. It is to me, anyway, largely an essay in 'linguistic aesthetic', as I sometimes say to people who ask me 'what is it all about'. While the Elvish languages remained at the center of Tolkien's attention, the requirements of the narratives associated with Middle-earth also necessitated the development at least superficially of the languages of other races, especially of Dwarves and Menbut also the Black Speech designed by Sauronthe main antagonist in The Lord of the Rings. This latter language was designed to be the ostensible antithesis of the ideal of an artistic language pursued with the development of Quenyathe Black Speech representing a dystopian parody of an international auxiliary language just as Sauron's rule over the Orcs is a dystopian parody of a totalitarian state. The Elvish language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language. Tolkien constructed the family from aroundworking on it up to his death in He constructed the grammar and vocabulary of at least fifteen languages and dialects in roughly three periods:. Although the Elvish languages Sindarin and Quenya are the most famous and the most developed of the languages that Tolkien invented for his Secondary World, they are by no means the only ones. They belong to a family of Elvish languages, that originate in Common Eldarinthe language common to all Eldarwhich in turn originates in Primitive Quendianthe common root of Eldarin and Avarin languages. Finnish morphology particularly its rich system of inflection in part gave rise to Quenya. Another of Tolkien's favourites was Welshand features of Welsh phonology found their way into Sindarin. Very few words were borrowed from existing languages so that attempts to match a source to a particular Elvish word or name in works published during his lifetime are often very dubious. Tolkien had worked out much of the etymological background of his Elvish languages during the s collected in the form of The Etymologies.